U N D E R   C O N S T R U C T I O N


This website is an introduction to the world of ‘the black-headed people’ in the Ancient Near East, the cradle of classic and western civilization. The project is called ‘The Rise and Fall of the Black-headed people’. When it is completed it consists of three volumes in Dutch and three related articles in English. All publications deal with aspects of Near Eastern civilization in its broader sense. Please note that this site is in progress. So far only the first part of this trilogy has appeared in print.

A diachronic map of Sumer and Akkad in the alluvial plains of Mesopotamia.

The first volume of the trilogy Enki’s omzwervingen‘ (Dutch)- deals with the archaic views on cosmography and religious beliefs or outlooks on life. In their first literary traditions the Sumerians refer to themselves as the ‘black-headed people’. Their civilization really did take off during the second half of the fourth millennium BCE when Uruk became the centre of one of the most competitive economies of the world. The influence of this metropolitan city in the delta of the Euphrates and the Tigris ranged from the cities in western India to the upper reaches of those rivers in Anatolia.

The second volume‘Toen kwam de vloed’ (Dutch) – is centred on the question whether the rather abrupt end of Uruk as the main commercial centre of Mesopotamia about 3000 BCE relates to the effects of the Great Flood discovered by the well-known archaeologist Leonard Woolley and described in several Near Eastern stories including ‘Genesis’, the first book of the Bible.

The third volume – ‘De teloorgang’ (Dutch)- deals with the question under what conditions or circumstances the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great collapsed around 2200 BCE. A similar question will be answered with reference to the demise of the Ur III Regime, dominated by the Sumerians from ca. 2100 until 2200 BCE. Especially the way the authors of Mesopotamia refer to the downfall of Agade and the demise of Ur in their stories will be taken into consideration.

Volume 1– Enki’s omzwervingen (Dutch)
A related internet article: ‘Enki and Ninhursag: a Rehabilitation’ (in English)

To be published in due course:
Volume 2 – Toen kwam de vloed
A related internet article: ‘Then the flood swept over’

Volume 3 – De teloorgang
A related internet article: ‘Downfall and Demise’


Recent Posts